Bone Health altered by Blueberry (Annotated)
Zhang, J., O. P. Lazarenko, et al. (2011). "Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats." PLoS One 6(9): e24486.
BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20) and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2) the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.
Arjmandi, B. H., C. D. Johnson, et al. (2010). "Combining fructooligosaccharide and dried plum has the greatest effect on restoring bone mineral density among select functional foods and bioactive compounds." J Med Food 13(2): 312-319.
Functional foods and/or their bioactive compounds playing a role in improving skeletal health have received considerable attention. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which certain functional foods as (1) whole, e.g., dried plum (DP), figs, dates, raisin, and blueberry, (2) fractionated, e.g., DP puree, DP juice, and DP pulp/skin, or (3) isolated, e.g., DP polyphenols, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, forms reverse bone loss in an ovariectomized (Ovx) rat model of osteoporosis. Additionally, some of these components were tested in reversal of bone loss in combination. For this purpose, 180 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 15 groups (n = 12) and either Ovx (14 groups) or sham-operated (Sham, one group). Rats were maintained on a semipurified standard diet for 45 days after surgery to establish bone loss. Thereafter, rats were placed on one of the following dietary treatments for 60 days: casein-based diet (Sham and Ovx). The remaining 13 Ovx groups were placed on various treatment diets. Results showed that diets supplemented with 5% FOS + 7.5% DP was most effective in reversing both right femur and fourth lumbar bone mineral density and fourth lumbar calcium loss while significantly decreasing trabecular separation. There were no significant effects of treatment on serum or urine measures of bone turnover. Although other treatments were good at altering some bone parameters, none had the success in altering several bone health indicators as the diets supplemented with 5% FOS + 7.5% DP. The findings of this study suggest the combination of 5% FOS + 7.5% DP is capable of reversing Ovx-induced bone loss.
Chen, J. R., O. P. Lazarenko, et al. (2010). "Dietary-induced serum phenolic acids promote bone growth via p38 MAPK/beta-catenin canonical Wnt signaling." J Bone Miner Res 25(11): 2399-2411.
Diet and nutritional status are critical factors that influences bone development. In this report we demonstrate that a mixture of phenolic acids found in the serum of young rats fed blueberries (BB) significantly stimulated osteoblast differentiation, resulting in significantly increased bone mass. Greater bone formation in BB diet-fed animals was associated with increases in osteoblast progenitors and osteoblast differentiation and reduced osteoclastogenesis. Blockade of p38 phosphorylation eliminated effects of BB on activation of Wnt signaling in preosteoblasts. Knocking down beta-catenin expression also blocked the ability of serum from BB diet-fed rats to stimulate osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Based on our in vivo and in vitro data, we propose that the underlying mechanisms of these powerful bone-promoting effects occur through beta-catenin activation and the nuclear accumulation and transactivation of TCF/LEF gene transcription in bone and in osteoblasts. These results indicate stimulation of molecular events leading to osteoblast differentiation triggered by P38 MAP kinase (MAPK)/beta-catenin canonical Wnt signaling results in significant increases in bone growth in young rats consuming BB-supplemented diets. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) characterization of the serum after BB feeding revealed a mixture of simple phenolic acids that may provide a basis for developing a new treatment to increase peak bone mass and delay degenerative bone disorders such as osteoporosis.
Devareddy, L., S. Hooshmand, et al. (2008). "Blueberry prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis." J Nutr Biochem 19(10): 694-699.
The objective of the present study was to explore the bone protective role of blueberry in an ovariectomized rat model. Thirty 6-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were either sham-operated (Sham) or ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Sham, Ovx (control), Ovx+blueberry (5% blueberry w/w). After 100 days of treatment, rats were euthanized, and blood and tissues were collected. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content of whole body, right tibia, right femur and fourth lumbar vertebra were assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. As expected, Ovx resulted in loss of whole-body, tibial, femoral, and 4th lumbar BMD by approximately 6%. Blueberry treatment was able to prevent the loss of whole-body BMD and had an intermediary effect on prevention of tibial and femoral BMD when compared to either Sham or Ovx controls. The bone-protective effects of blueberry may be due to suppression of Ovx-induced increase in bone turnover, as evident by lowered femoral mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase to the Sham levels. Similarly, serum osteocalcein levels were also lower in the blueberry group when compared to the Ovx control group, albeit not significantly. In summary, our findings indicate that blueberry can prevent bone loss as seen by the increases in BMD and favorable changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism.
Bickford, P. C., J. Tan, et al. (2006). "Nutraceuticals synergistically promote proliferation of human stem cells." Stem Cells Dev 15(1): 118-123.
A viable alternative to stem cell transplantation is to design approaches that stimulate endogenous stem cells to promote healing and regenerative medicine. Many natural compounds have been shown to promote healing; however, the effects of these compounds on stem cells have not been investigated. We report here the effects of several natural compounds on the proliferation of human bone marrow and human CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells. A dose-related effect of blueberry, green tea, catechin, carnosine, and vitamin D(3) was observed on proliferation with human bone marrow as compared with human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF). We further show that combinations of nutrients produce a synergistic effect to promote proliferation of human hematopoietic progenitors. This demonstrates that nutrients can act to promote healing via an interaction with stem cell populations.